Click here to Print

Convention on Conservation of Migratory Species
Ministry of Environment, Forests and Climate Change



India is very rich in floral and faunal diversity. India hosts several migratory species which crosses transboundary for their biological needs. India has taken several conservation measures to protect and conserve the species and their habitats. Hence CMS is the best platform to enhance the conservation measures with other nations as CMS provides a global platform for the conservation and sustainable use of migratory animals and their habitats. India is a signatory to the CMS since 1983. Considering the extensive work done by India in conservation and its leadership role in the region, the 126 parties of CMS have entrusted in India for hosting13th Conference of Parties to CMS in 2020. 
 
India with CMS
 
India is temporary home to several migratory animals and birds. The important among these include Amur Falcons, Bar headed Geese, Black necked cranes, Marine turtles, Dugongs, Humpbacked Whales, etc. The Indian sub-continent is also part of the major bird flyway network, i.e, the Central Asian Flyway (CAF) that covers areas between the Arctic and Indian Oceans, and covers at least 279 populations of 182 migratory water bird species, including 29 globally threatened species. India has also launched the National Action Plan for conservation of migratory species under the Central Asian Flyway.Further, India has developed and is implementing the ‘National Conservation Action Plans of Dugongs, Great Indian Bustard, Sea Turtles and Amur Falcons’. A total of 868 protected areas have been established in India as on 1 March, 2019, including 104 national parks, 550 wildlife sanctuaries, 87 conservation reserves and 127 community reserves. Besides, 27 wetlands have been designated as Ramsarsites which give maximum protection for wildlife including several migratory species. 
 
India has taken several other measures relating to CMS CoP resolutions and recommendations. In the area of capacity building (Res. 9.12 / Res. 10.6), Ministry of Environment, Forest and Climate Change, Government of India supports several programmes to conserve migratory species and their habitats. National Biodiversity Strategy and Action Plan of India has addressed various issues in this context. India has been monitoring the birds and mammals of Antarctica and Southern Indian Ocean through its 'Antarctica Programme'. Most migratory birds of India have been listed under various Schedules of the Wild Life (Protection) Act, 1972 thereby according them protection against hunting and trade. 
 
The Government of India has been taking necessary actions to protect and conserve migratory marine species. Seven species, that include Dugong, Whale Shark, Marine Turtle (two species), have been identified for preparation of Conservation and Recovery Action Plan. In pursuance to the decision taken by the National Board for Wildlife to protect Tiger and other Asian big cats under the Chairmanship of the Prime Minister, a Task Force was constituted for identifying Transboundary Protected Area for better cooperation between India and neighbouring countries. The Task Force could identify and prioritize 12 Transboundary Protected Areas in India and these TBPAs would be managed for peace and co-operation as per the guidelines prescribed by the IUCN-World Commission on Protected Areas.
 
The Ministry of Environment, Forest and Climate Change has chosen seven threatened marine species and prepared their recovery plans at the National Level. On priority, the species recovery plans of the Dugong, the Whale Shark and Marine Turtles have already been under implementation with help of concerned State Governments, WII, NGOs, etc. Further, the Ministry of Environment, Forests and Climate Change, Government of India has already chosen the threatened dugong, marine turtles, coral reefs and mangroves under its ‘Integrated Development of Wildlife Habitats’ programme on a priority basis. Necessary conservation actions in this regard have already been initiated. Recently, MoEFCC isimplementing the ‘Recovery Programme of Dugong’ with support from State Governments of Tamil Nadu and Gujarat and Union Territory of Andaman and Nicobar Islands in collaboration with the Indian Navy and the Indian Coast Guard and other National/State Level institutions. 
 
 
India also planning to propose the following species for inclusion into CMS - Appendices, 
 
India is also signatory to the following Agreements/MoUs under CMS 
 
  1. Siberian Crane MoU (1993/1999)
    The Memorandum of Understanding (MoU) Concerning Conservation Measures for the Siberian Crane is a Multilateral Environmental Memorandum of Understanding and is came into effect on 1 July 1993 and was amended in January 1999. It was the first MoU to be concluded under the auspices of the Convention on Migratory Species of Wild Animals (CMS), also known as the Bonn Convention, and focuses on conserving the Siberian crane as one of the three rarest crane species. The MoU covers twelve range states (Afghanistan, Azerbaijan, China, India, Islamic Republic of Iran, Japan (vagrant), Kazakhstan, Mongolia, Pakistan, Russian Federation, Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan). As of August 2012, eleven range states have signed the MoU.
     
  2. IOSEA Marine Turtles MoU (2001)
    This is a Non-binding agreement concluded under the auspices of the Convention on the Conservation of Migratory Species of Wild Animals. Geographic coverage of this MoU is the Waters and coastal States of the Indian Ocean and South-East Asia and adjacent seas, extending eastwards to the Torres Strait. For implementation purposes, the area is divided into four sub-regions: South-East Asia + neighbours, Northern Indian Ocean, Northwestern Indian Ocean, and Western Indian Ocean. There are 44 States in the Agreement area; however, so far 33 are Signatory States. India entered this MoU on 20th February 2007. All other countries in the Northern Indian Ocean such as Sri Lanka, Pakistan, Maldives and Bangladesh are also signatory to this MoU.
     
  3. Dugong MoU (2007) 
    The Memorandum of Understanding on the Conservation and Management of Dugongs and their Habitats throughout their Range (UNEP/CMS Dugong MoU) - entered into force on 31 October 2007 after being signed by 7 range states (Australia, Eritrea, France, Madagascar, Myanmar, the United Arab Emirates and the United Republic of Tanzania) and they have since been joined by four additional signatories (India, the Comores, Kenya and the Philippines) to raise the number of signatories to 11 range states to date.
     
  4. Central Asian Flyway Action Plan for the conservation of Migratory Waterbirds and their habitats.
    The CMS Secretariat has identified nine major flyways globally with respect to bird migration. India is part of one such flyway namely the Central Asian Flyway (CAF). An Action Plan has been developed for protection of Migratory birds and its habitats along the CAF.

     
  5. Raptor MoU / Memorandum of Understanding on the Conservation of Migratory Birds of Prey in Africa and Eurasia.
    It covers 93 species of birds of prey under its ambit and an action plan has been formulated under it that envisages the conservation action for Raptor species. Of the total 93 species of birds that fall in Raptor MoU, 50 species occur in India including vultures, falcons, eagles, hawks, kites, harriers and owls