India’s unique topographical features endow it with a diversity of terrain and terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems that harbour rich biodiversity. Based on a study of the distinctive biogeographic characteristic features of the country from north to south and east to west, 10 Biogeographic Zones (BZs) have been identified (Rogers and Panwar, 1988). The study further identifies three subordinate levels in BZs namely, (i) the Biotic Province- a secondary unit within a zone, of particular communities separated by dispersal barriers or gradual change in environmental factors, e.g., North-west and West Himalaya on either side of the Sutlej River, (ii) the Land Region- a tertiary unit within a province, indicating different land forms, e.g., Aravalli Mountains and Malwa Plateau in Gujarat-Rajwara Province, and (iii) the Biome- an ecological unit such as swamp/wetland or temperate broad leaved forest in each zone

Floral Diversity:  Angiosperms with 18,386 species i.e., a little over 37% of the identified floral species form the largest group in plant diversity. Fungi come next accounting for 31 % at 15,115 species. 

Faunal Diversity: Of the 1,01,167 species identified so far by ZSI, about 28,537 have been reported as endemic to the country comprising 28.2% of the known animal diversity of the country. With 90,986 species of Insects, 3,364 species of Fishes, 414 species of Amphibians, 584 Species of Reptiles, 1340 species of birds and 427 species of Mammals India is very rich in faunal diversity. 

(Source: Implementation of India’s National Biodiversity Action Plan: An Overview 2019, MoEFCC)



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